When our bees were without queens earlier this year (when we carelessly let them swarm) we noticed some interesting behaviors in the hives: 1, aggression: they were not happy at all. Even the most passive of colonies was dive bombing anyone who came within 100 feet of the hives. Almost everyone using the field got stung. They were particularly aggressive in the evening
2, disorganised behavior in the hive; they undertook the basic jobs that keep the colony alive in the short term, such as raising the brood, but we commonly found them eating the recently laid-down honey stores rather than being out collecting more.
3, weird wax formations; we also found that the way they raised up wax became uneven and they mixed drone brood cells in with honey stores. This picture shows how we are now left with some very strong raised wax that they do not want to use for honey stores: