The 'June gap' is as strange phenomon which appears to occur in the UK and some other countries. This term refers to a period when there is a sudden reduction in the amount of pollen and nectar around to feed honeybees (and, presumably, other bee types too but much harder to monitor their food intake and brood production quite so closely). This is an problem for bees because in May, the colonies of many bee species are growing rapidly. Honey bees will be reaching peak colony size and bumblebees will have thier workers out in force. The flowering times of plants follow the following pattern:
- During spring: in addition to many early flowering herbaceous species flowering there are vast volumes of pollen and nectar produced from trees and hedges. To put this into perspective a single mature lime of willow tree will yield the same amount of bee food as an acre of wildflower meadow.
- Then in May, if your bees are rural types, the rapeseed flowers bringing a serious glut.
- But come June, all of that is over, and the grass is now long suppressing most wild flowers.
- Then by July a variety of tall herbaceous species find ways to push up through the grass and once again we have flowers through to September. Also at this stage late flowering fruit species such as brambles come into thier own.
But why is there less flower in June? It doesn't make much ecological sense as you would imagine that some species of plants would evolve to take advantage of the reduced competition for pollinators.
I am not totally convinced that the June Gap exists in the UK - or maybe not every year - and is really just beekeeping folklore to explain years when honey yeilds are poor. The weather will affect the times when plants flower and can make the gap greater or smaller. Also, some plants will be in flower - just less.
Here are some of the best garden perennials that do seem to still flower through this period so if you have a chance to plant some the bees will be greatful:
- Most of the hardy geraniums including the native geranium pratense, Veronica spicata, helenium 'Sahins early flowerer', nepeta mussinii, centaurea montana. (see plant for more)
- Lots of herbs; thymes, coriander, rosemary and, best of all borage (pictured above)
and..... if you have an area for seed Phacelia which will flower for 6 weeks right at the time the bees need it.